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The development of writing and books are the greatest achievements of humanity.Everything else-science, technology, literature, philosophy-is the fruit of writing and of thoughts that have been written down.


In order to study the history of humanity, especially science, philosophy and culture, it is necessary for valuable resources such as textbooks, monographs and articles to be accessible. With this goal in mind, we decided to create a virtual library in multiple languages. Hamlet Isaxanli’s “History of Science and Philosophy: Ancient Period” class for PhD students at Khazar University provided the idea for this virtual library. We have begun to collect materials.


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The History

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The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι; also known as The History) of Herodotus is now considered as the founding work of history in Western literature. Written from the 450s to the 420s BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time. It is not an impartial record but it remains one of the West’s most important sources regarding these affairs. Moreover, it established without precedent the genre and study of history in the Western world, although historical records and chronicles existed beforehand.

It stands as one of the first accounts of the rise of the Persian Empire, the events of, and causes for, the Greco-Persian Wars between the Achaemenid Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. Herodotus portrays the conflict as one between the forces of slavery (the Persians) on the one hand, and freedom (the Athenians and the confederacy of Greek city-states which united against the invaders) on the other.

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