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The development of writing and books are the greatest achievements of humanity.Everything else-science, technology, literature, philosophy-is the fruit of writing and of thoughts that have been written down.


In order to study the history of humanity, especially science, philosophy and culture, it is necessary for valuable resources such as textbooks, monographs and articles to be accessible. With this goal in mind, we decided to create a virtual library in multiple languages. Hamlet Isaxanli’s “History of Science and Philosophy: Ancient Period” class for PhD students at Khazar University provided the idea for this virtual library. We have begun to collect materials.


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A History of Natural Philosophy

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Natural philosophy encompassed all natural phenomena of the physical world.
It sought to discover the physical causes of all natural effects and was little concerned
with mathematics. By contrast, the exact mathematical sciences – such as
astronomy, optics, and mechanics – were narrowly confined to various computations
that did not involve physical causes. Natural philosophy and the exact
sciences functioned independently of each other. Although this began slowly to
change in the late Middle Ages, a much more thoroughgoing union of natural
philosophy and mathematics occurred in the seventeenth century and thereby
made the Scientific Revolution possible. The title of Isaac Newton’s great work,
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, perfectly reflects the new
relationship. Natural philosophy became the “Great Mother of the Sciences,”
which by the nineteenth century had nourished the manifold chemical, physical,
and biological sciences to maturity, thus enabling them to leave the “Great
Mother” and emerge as the multiplicity of independent sciences we know today.
EdwardGrant is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of the History and Philosophy
of Science at Indiana University, Bloomington. He is the author or editor of twelve
books, one of which has been translated into eleven languages and one into three
languages. He is also the author of approximately ninety articles on the history
of science and natural philosophy. He was Vice President and President of the
History of Science Society and was awarded the prestigious George Sarton Medal
of that society.

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